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Citing and referencing: Audiovisual/Music scores

A guide to the styles recommended by Monash schools and departments for students and researchers

Audiovisual

DVD/VHS

Rule for Notes

Note Number. Producer's First and Last Names, “Title of Scene,” Title of Production, directed by Director(s) (Place: Publisher, Year), Medium.

Example of Note entry

1. Alfred Hitchcock, “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD/VHS.

Subsequent Note entry

4. Hitchcock, North by Northwest.

Rule for Bibliography

Producer's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Scene,” Title of Production, directed by Director(s) (Place: Publisher, Year). Medium

Example of Bibliography entry

Hitchcock, Alfred. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000). DVD/VHS.

 

CD-Rom

Rule for Notes

Note Number. Author's First and Last Names/Organisation, Title (Place: Producer, Year), Medium.

Example of Note entry

1. John Gerry, Coopers: Brew your own (Adelaide, SA: Coopers Brewery, 2012), CD-ROM.

Subsequent Note entry

7. Gerry, Coopers: Brew your own.

Rule for Bibliography

Author's Last name, First name/Organisation. Title (Place: Producer, Year). Medium.


Example of Bibliography entry

Gerry, John. Coopers: Brew your own (Adelaide, SA: Coopers Brewery, 2012). CD-ROM.

 

Television

Rule for Notes

Note Number. Producer's First and Last Names, “Title of Episode,” Production Title, season number, episode number, directed by First and Last Names, date screened (Place: Publisher, Year), Medium.


Example of Note entry

1. Andrew Knight, “Bad Debts,” Jack Irish, season 1, episode 1, directed by Jeffery Walker, screened October 14, 2012 (Sydney, NSW: ABC TV, 2012), Television Broadcast.

Subsequent Note entry

4. Knight, “Bad Debts”.

Rule for Bibliography

Producer's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Episode,” Production Title, season number, episode number, directed by First and Last Names, date screened (Place: Publisher, Year). Medium.

Example of Bibliography entry

Knight, Andrew. “Bad Debts,” Jack Irish, season 1, episode 1, directed by Jeffery Walker, screened October 14, 2012 (Sydney, NSW: ABC TV, 2012). Television Broadcast.

 

Radio

Rule for Notes

Note Number. Producer's First and Last Names, “Episode Title,” Production Title, episode number, date aired (Place: Publisher, Year), Medium.


Example of Note entry

1. Lynne Malcolm. “The bilingual brain,” All in the mind, episode 18, aired October 21, 2012 (Sydney: ABC Radio National, 2012), Radio broadcast.

Subsequent Note entry

3. Malcolm, “The bilingual brain”.

Rule for Bibliography

Producer's Last Name, First Name. “Episode Title,” Production Title, episode number, date aired (Place: Publisher, Year). Medium.

Example of Bibliography entry

Malcolm, Lynne. “The bilingual brain,” All in the mind, episode 18, aired October 21, 2012 (Sydney: ABC Radio National, 2012). Radio broadcast.

 

Sound recording

Rule for Notes

Note Number. Composer/Performer's First and Last Names, Title of Recording, Publisher number, Date, Medium.


Example of Note entry

1. The Beatles, Let it Be, CDP 7 46447 2, 1970, CD.

Subsequent Note entry

3. Beatles, Let it Be.

Rule for Bibliography

Composer/Performer's Last Name, First Name.. Title of Recording, Publisher number, Date. Medium.

Example of Bibliography entry

Beatles, The. Let it Be, CDP 7 46447 2, 1970. CD.

 

Podcasts/Vodcasts

Rule for Notes

Note Number. "Title of pod/vodcast," Program (Place, Producer, Date), Medium. URL


Example of Note entry

1. “Facebook Pages reveal not so social media,” 7.30 (Sydney, ABC, October 11, 2012), Vodcast. http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/730/video/201210/730s_Facebook_1110_512k.mp4

Subsequent Note entry

3. 7.30, “Facebook Pages”.

Rule for Bibliography

“Title of pod/vodcast,” Program (Place, Producer, Date). Medium. URL

Example of Bibliography entry

“Facebook Pages reveal not so social media,” 7.30 (Sydney, ABC, October 11, 2012). Vodcast. http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/news/730/video/201210/730s_Facebook_1110_512k.mp4

 

YouTube (or similar) video


Rule for Notes

Note Number. User, Title, online video, date viewed. URL


Example of Note entry

3. maxscabaret, The Three Penny Opera – Pirate Jenny – Lyndele Gauci (online video, October 24, 2012). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbuzeEJnAlg


Subsequent Note entry

6. maxscabaret, Three Penny Opera.


Rule for Bibliography
User, Title, online video, date viewed. URL

Example of Bibliography entry

maxscabaret, The Three Penny Opera – Pirate Jenny – Lyndele Gauci (online video, October 24, 2012). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbuzeEJnAlg

 

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Music scores

Music score

Rule for Notes

Note Number. Composer's First and Last Names, Title, (Place: Publisher, Year), page number(s).

Example of Note entry

1. Claude Debussy. Prélude á l’après-midi d’un faune. (Paris: Jobert, 1922), 7.

Subsequent Note entry

4. Debussy, Prélude, 9.

Rule for Bibliography

Composer's Last Name, First Name. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example of Bibliography entry

Debussy, Claude. Prélude á l’après-midi d’un faune. Paris: Jobert, 1922.

 

Edited music score

Rule for Notes

Note Number. Composer's First and Last Names, Title, ed. by First and Last Name (Place: Publisher, Year), page number(s).

Example of Note entry

1. Ludwig van Beethoven. Symphony No.3 in E-flat major Op. 55, ed. by Max Unger (London: Eulenburg, 1936), 11.

Subsequent Note entry

5. Beethoven, Symphony No.3, 14.

Rule for Bibliography

Composer's Last Name, First Name. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example of Bibliography entry

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No.3 in E-flat major Op. 55. Edited by Max Unger. London: Eulenburg, 1936.

 

Music score transcription

Rule for Notes

Additional information about transcriber, arranger etc. is placed between the title and the publication information. Where date is not included on the score, add in [square brackets]. See example below.

Note number. First and Last Names. Title, transcr. by First and Last Names (Place: Publisher, year), page number(s).

Example of Note entry

2. Duke Ellington. Purple Gazelle, transcr. by David Berger (Miami: Warner Bros., [2004]), 12.

Subsequent Note entry

5. Ellington, Purple Gazelle, 14.

Rule for Bibliography

Composer's Last Name, First Name. Title. Transcribed by First and Last Name. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example of Bibliography entry

Ellington, Duke. Purple Gazelle. Transcribed by David Berger. Miami: Warner Bros., [2004].

 

Part of a whole work

(see 17.263 Schubert example p. 724 CMS 16th)

Rule for Notes

Note Number. First and Last Names. “Title of part,” in Work Title. ed. by First and Last Names (Place: Publisher, date), page number(s).

Example of Note entry

3. Robert Schumann. “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai,” in Dichterliebe. ed. by Arthur Komar (New York: Norton, 1977), 14-15.

Subsequent Note entry

11. Schumann, Dichterliebe, 20.

Rule for Bibliography

Last Name, First Name. “Title of part,” In Work Title. Edited by First and Last Names. Place: Publisher, date.

Example of Bibliography entry

Schumann, Robert. “Im wunderschönen Monat Mai,” In Dichterliebe. Edited by Arthur Komar. New York: Norton, 1977.

 

Excerpt from a score anthology

Rule for Notes

Note number. First and Last Names, “Song title,” in Anthology Title, ed. First and Last Names (Place: Publisher, date), page number(s).

Example of Note entry

3. Tommaso Giordani, “Caro mio ben,” in 26 Italian Songs and Arias: An Authoritative Edition Based on Authentic Sources, ed. John Glenn Paton (Van Nuys, CA: Alfred, 1991) 129.

Subsequent Note entry

6. Giordani, 26 Italian Songs and Arias, 131.

Rule for Bibliography

Last Name, First Name. “Song Title.” In Anthology Title. Edited by First and Last Names. Place: Publisher, date.

Example of Bibliography entry

Giordani, Tommaso. “Caro mio ben.” In 26 Italian Songs and Arias: An Authoritative Edition Based on Authentic Sources (for medium low voice). Edited by John Glenn Paton. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred, 1991.

 

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